Preserve the rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches). The monsoon trough, alternately known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating Earth's tropical rain forests.
40 to 75% of all species on the world's habitats are indigenous to the rainforests.Rainforests.net It has been estimated that many millions of species of plants, insects, and microorganisms are still undiscovered. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth", and the "world's largest pharmacy", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there.Rainforests are also responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen turn over, often misunderstood as oxygen production, processing it through photosynthesis from carbon dioxide and storing it as carbon through biosequestration.
The undergrowth in a rainforest is restricted in many areas by the lack of sunlight at ground level. This makes it possible to walk through the forest. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense, tangled growth of vines, shrubs, and small trees called a jungle. There are two types of rainforest, tropical rainforest and temperate rainforest.
Many of the world's rainforests are associated with the location of the monsoon trough, also known as the intertropical convergence zone. Tropical rainforests are rainforests in the tropics, found near the Equator (between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and present in Southeast Asia (Myanmar to Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and northeastern Australia), Sri Lanka, Sub-Saharan Africa from Cameroon to the Congo (Congo Rainforest), South America (e.g. the Amazon Rainforest), Central America (e.g. Bosawás, southern Yucatán Peninsula-El Peten-Belize-Calakmul), and on many of the Pacific Islands (such as Hawaiʻi). Tropical rainforests have been called the "Earth's lungs," although it is now known that rainforests contribute little net oxygen additions to the atmosphere through photosynthesis.Columbia UniSpringerlink
Temperate rainforests are rainforests in temperate regions. They can be found in North America (in the Pacific Northwest, the British Columbia Coast, and in the inland rainforest of the Rocky Mountain Trench east of Prince George), in Europe (parts of the British Isles such as the coastal areas of Ireland, Scotland, southern Norway, parts of the western Balkans along the Adriatic coast, as well as in the North West of Spain and coastal areas of the eastern Black Sea, including Georgia and coastal Turkey), in East Asia (in southern China, Taiwan, much of Japan and Korea, and on Sakhalin Island and the adjacent Russian Far East coast), in South America (southern Chile) and also Australia and New Zealand
A tropical rainforest is typically divided into four main layers, each with different plants and animals adapted for life in that particular area: the emergent, canopy, understory, and forest floor layers.
 Emergent layer
The emergent layer contains a small number of very large trees called emergents, which grow above the general canopy, reaching heights of 45–55 m, although on occasion a few species will grow to 70–80 m tall. They need to be able to withstand the hot temperatures and strong winds in some areas. Eagles, butterflies, bats, and certain monkeys inhabit this layer.
 Canopy layer
The canopy layer contains the majority of the largest trees, typically 30–45 m tall. The densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, a more or less continuous cover of foliage formed by adjacent treetops. The canopy, by some estimates, is home to 50 percent of all plant species, suggesting that perhaps half of all life on Earth could be found there. Epiphytic plants attach to trunks and branches, and obtain water and minerals from rain and debris that collects on the supporting plants. The fauna is similar to that found in the emergent layer, but more diverse. A quarter of all insect species are believed to exist in the rainforest canopy. Scientists have long suspected the richness of the canopy as a habitat, but have only recently developed practical methods of exploring it. As long ago as 1917, naturalist William Beebe declared that "another continent of life remains to be discovered, not upon the Earth, but one to two hundred feet above it, extending over thousands of square miles." True exploration of this habitat only began in the 1980s, when scientists developed methods to reach the canopy, such as firing ropes into the trees using crossbows. Exploration of the canopy is still in its infancy, but other methods include the use of balloons and airships to float above the highest branches and the building of cranes and walkways planted on the forest floor. The science of accessing tropical forest canopy using airships, or similar aerial platforms, is called dendronautics.
 Understory layer
The understory layer lies between the canopy and the forest floor. The understory (or understorey) is home to a number of birds, snakes, and lizards, as well as predators such as jaguars, boa constrictors, and leopards. The leaves are much larger at this level. Insect life is also abundant. Many seedlings that will grow to the canopy level are present in the understory. Only about 5 percent of the sunlight shining on the rainforest reaches the understory. This layer can also be called a shrub layer, although the shrub layer may also be considered a separate layer.
 Forest floor
The forest floor, the bottom-most layer, receives only 2 percent of sunlight. Only plants adapted to low light can grow in this region. Away from riverbanks, swamps, and clearings where dense undergrowth is found, the forest floor is relatively clear of vegetation because of the low sunlight penetration. It also contains decaying plant and animal matter, which disappears quickly due to the warm, humid conditions promoting rapid decay. Many forms of fungi grow here which help decay the animal and plant waste.
 Flora and fauna
More than half of the world's species of plants and animals are found in the rainforest. Rainforests support a very broad array of fauna including mammals, reptiles, birds, and invertebrates. Mammals may include primates, felids, and other families. Reptiles include snakes, turtles, chameleons, and other families while birds include such families as vangidae and Cuculidae. Dozens of families of invertebrates are found in rainforests. Fungi are also very common in rainforest areas as they can feed on the decomposing remains of plant and animal life. These species are rapidly disappearing due to deforestation, habitat loss, and biochemical releases into the atmosphere.
Despite the growth of vegetation in a tropical rainforest, soil quality is often quite poor. Rapid bacterial decay prevents the accumulation of humus. The concentration of iron and aluminium oxides by the laterization process gives the oxisols a bright red color and sometimes produces minable deposits such as bauxite. Most trees have roots near the surface as there are not many nutrients below the ground; most of the trees minerals come from the top layer of decomposing leaves (mainly) and animals. On younger substrates, especially of volcanic origin, tropical soils may be quite fertile. If the trees are cleared, the rain can get at the exposed soil, washing it away. Eventually streams will form, then rivers. Flooding becomes possible.
 Effect on global climate
A natural rainforest emits and absorbs vast quantities of carbon dioxide. On a global scale, long-term fluxes are approximately in balance, so that an undisturbed rainforest would have a small net impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, though they may have other climatic effects (on cloud formation, for example, by recycling water vapor). No rainforest today can be considered to be undisturbed. Human induced deforestation plays a significant role in causing rainforests to release carbon dioxide, as do natural processes such as drought that result in tree death. Some climate models run with interactive vegetation and predict a large loss of Amazonian rainforest around 2050 due to drought, leading to forest dieback and the subsequent feedback of releasing more carbon dioxide.
 Human uses
Tropical rainforests provide timber as well as animal products such as meat and hides. Rainforests also have value as tourism destinations and for the ecosystem services provided. Many foods originally came from tropical forests, and are still mostly grown on plantations in regions that were formerly primary forest. Also, plant derived medicines are commonly used for fever, fungal infections, burns, gastrointestinal problems, pain, respiratory problems, and wound treatment.
 Native peoples
On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes. The province of Irian Jaya or West Papua in the island of New Guinea is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.
Central African rainforest is home of the Mbuti pygmies, one of the hunter-gatherer peoples living in equatorial rainforests characterised by their short height (below one and a half metres, or 59 inches, on average). They were the subject of a study by Colin Turnbull, The Forest People, in 1962.[] Pygmies who live in Southeast Asia are, amongst others, referred to as “Negritos.”
Tropical and temperate rainforests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance throughout the 20th century and the area covered by rainforests around the world is shrinking.[] Biologists have estimated that large numbers of species are being driven to extinction (possibly more than 50,000 a year; at that rate, says E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, a quarter or more of all species on Earth could be exterminated within 50 years) due to the removal of habitat with destruction of the rainforests.
Another factor causing the loss of rainforest is expanding urban areas. Littoral rainforest growing along coastal areas of eastern Australia is now rare due to ribbon development to accommodate the demand for seachange lifestyles.
The forests are being destroyed at a rapid pace. Almost 90% of West Africa's rainforest has been destroyed.[] Since the arrival of humans 2000 years ago, Madagascar has lost two thirds of its original rainforest. At present rates, tropical rainforests in Indonesia would be logged out in 10 years and Papua New Guinea in 13 to 16 years.[]
Several countries,[] notably Brazil, have declared their deforestation a national emergency.[] Amazon deforestation jumped by 69% in 2008 compared to 2007's twelve months, according to official government data.[] Deforestation could wipe out or severely damage nearly 60% of the Amazon Rainforest by 2030, says a new report from WWF.[]
However, a January 30, 2009 New York Times article stated, "By one estimate, for every acre of rain forest cut down each year, more than 50 acres of new forest are growing in the tropics..." The new forest includes secondary forest on former farmland and so-called degraded forest.[]
From a new recent report in September 2009, new opportunities are beginning to discover they could save the rainforest. In Brazil, Environment Minister Carlos Minc announced proudly that the rate of deforestation of the Amazon fell by 46 percent last year. That means the lowest logging level since the country began to keep annual statistics 21 years ago. But not only Brazil has reduced deforestation as a whole also slowed the loss of forest down. The annual decline is now over two thousand. Deforestation decreases in a country as it becomes richer and more industrialized. Therefore, there are exceptions in a group of countries where deforestation has become so profitable that it is an important part in the growth of prosperity. New goal is to stop felling the forest, but also in managing the forest long-term, which occurs on a larger scale. More police officers guarding the rainforest, and stifle the illegal logging.
The world's rainforests are currently disappearing at a rate of 6000 acres every hour (this is about 4000 football fields per hour). When these forests are cut down, the plants and animals that live in the forests are destroyed, and some species are at risk of being made extinct. Further, as the large-scale harvesting of lumber from the rain forests continues, the balance of the earth's eco-system is disrupted. We need the rain forests to produce oxygen and clean the atmosphere to help us breathe. We also know that the earth's climate can be affected, as well as the water cycle. Rainforests also provide us with many valuable medicinal plants, and may be a source of a cure from some deadly diseases.
Forests can be managed effectively without endangering rare species of plants and animals and without risking global environmental damage. Companies that harvest timber should not be allowed to "clear cut" large areas of forest and should be required to plant new trees after they cut old trees down. Governments should create large parks and reserves where hunting and logging are not allowed. As a world community, we must be careful not to destroy the resources that people will need in the future.
Many animals from the rainforests are brought to our country illegally. Parrots and iguanas, for example, are often imported illegally. We should not buy these animals, since that encourages other people to bring in more animals.
Most of the products that we use in our country come from rainforests, such as rubber, coffee and rain forest lumber. Rainforests are cut down to harvest the timber and also to make room for farms to grow coffee and spices. Each of us needs to be thoughtful about the way we consume these products, and support companies and programs that make a commitment to safe environmental practices. Recycle and re-use whenever possible, and help keep the earth green and healthy.
 The Negative Effects of Deforestation
- Prevention of deforestation is important for the stability of the environment and all living things, as the following negative effects are already causing serious irreversible damage throughout the world:
A) Irreversible Environment Changes:
- Sadly, some parts of the world have experienced detrimental consequences as a result of deforestation. For instance, they no longer are able to enjoy thriving biodiversity and must find ways to cope with continuous environmental changes. The majority of countries that have undergone massive deforestation are dealing with unforeseen transformation in climate and geography because the ability of forests to sustain a balance in climate changes is hindered. The outcome - natural habitats and biodevirsity shrinks by the minute.
B) Decline in Wood:
- Deforestation causes a dramatic decline in thw wood that satisfies industrial, fuel, and other human needs.
C) Living Conditions:
- The overall quality of life declines when deforestation takes place - especially in regions where degraded land is found.
D) Water Conditions:
- Deforesattion plays a role in the amount of water found in the soil, as well as the level of moisture in the atmospher.
E) Medicinal Loss:
- Researches have uncovered the sources to a wealth of new drugs within forest biotopes located all over the world. With deforestation, the genetic variations (like to resistance) that scientists would like to preserve are geatly threatened.
- The loss of vital trees and plants affect the water cycle in many different ways, as the absence of litter, stems, and truks of tress all play an important role. With less forest covering the land, the ability to 'intercept' retain, and transport precipitation is affected. When precipitation is not trapped, surface water transport occurs at a faster rate. Possible outcomes include flash floods.
G) Increased pollution:
- You've heard of trees and the role they play in regards to our air. Trees serve as significant managers of organic carbon and forest possess the capacity to remove harmful pollutants from the air. Without trees working in our favor, increased pollution is allowed to take place.
H) Shrinking Beauty:
- Forests are green visions of natural beauty that are valued for their cultural resource. Simply put - they are 'nice' to look at and fun to explore during family vacations or adventure hikes. In some parts of the world, they provide great tourist attractions.
I) Financial Impact:
- Although the wood found in forests is used to supply people with timber, wood fuel (for heating and cooking), and wood pulp (for paper) - the long-term financial impact far outweighs the short-term gain. The use of forests for the creation of wood products or the conversion of forest to agriculture has actually developed financial woes, as both West Africa and Southeast Asia have in timber harvests. Also - illegal logging comes with a price each year that can cost national economies billions of dollars to compensate.
 How to Prevent Deforestation
You don't have to live in the middle of the rainforest to do your part in preventing deforestation. Below are a few suggestions to consider when you are interested in preserving the amount of forests located in the rest of the world, as well as right in your own backyard:
A.) Use Recycled Items:
- Today, a consumer can purchase a variety of recycled items, including notebook paper, books, toilet paper, and shopping bags. When people use recyclesd products and make a concious effort not to waste, the demand for new raw material to replace these items can decrease.
B.) Tree Care:
- When cutting down trees - single out full-grown specimens and spare younger varieties. In the event that you must remove a tree for a legitimate reason (for safety issues or power line interference), make sure that for every tree lost - another is planted in its place.
C.) Farming Practies:
- Those who plant crops at a farm can participate in putting a dent in deforestation by rotating crops. It is suggested to replace the habit of using different portions of land each year with using the same portion of land to plant different crops. This practice has proven effective in maintaining soil fertility. Farmers may also embrace many other options, such as high-yield hybrid crops and hydroponics, which relies on a method of growing plants using meneral nutreint solutions instead of soil.
D.) Cut Bak on Palm Oil:
- In Malaysia and Indonesia, an increasing amount of trees are cut down in order to generate the palm oil used in the production of some breads, chocolates, and shampoos. As a result, the native orangutans are losing their habitat. You can spread awareness and limit your consumption of products containing this type of oil.
- As the chill of winter takes over the autumn season, try using coals instead of firewood in your fireplace. While it only takes a couple of hours to consume a few logs here and there, keep in mind that it takes years for one tree to fully grow.
- Take a page from the People's Republic of China, where the government that in the past set a requirement that every able-bodied citizen between that the ages of 11 and 60 is responsible for planting three to five trees per year or complete an equal amount of work in other areas of forestry. Since 1982, the government claims that at least one billion trees have been planted in China as a result of the program.
G.) Become an Advocate:
- Become an advocate of reforestation. Learn how you can spread the word. For instance, a middle school in Washington took to the streets asking people for just one penny. They explained that the money would go towards purchasing acres of Amazonian rainforest. If successful, this move ensures that no deforestation can take place on the bought land. The effort was two fold - spreading information and collecting money for a good cause.
H.) Arbor Day Foundation's Rain Forest Rescue:
- Support programs, such as this Arbor Day Foundation gem, which assists in the prevention of deforestation. Donated money is used to purchase and preserve rainforest space before lumber companies can get a hold of the land. As a result, the Arbor Day Foundation is able to protect the land from deforestation.
I.) Support Conservation Organization:
- Lend your support through donations of yout time, money, or actions to organizations that run programs concentrating on the preservation of forests habitats, such as Greenpeace, World Wide Fund for Nature, Community Forestry International, and Conservation International.
 Tips for personal action
- Organize benefit Shows.
- Plan an event or organize Painitng Contests and Celebrity Concerts for Rainforest Preservation
- Conduct tours for students and individuals.
- Why Preserve Rainforest Habitat? 
- Propagate in every schools around the world.
- Give to Protect an acre who protect the world's forests and the rights of their inhabitants by providing financial aid to traditionally under-funded organizations and communities in forest regions.
- See A Shopper's Guide to Home Tissue Products and pressure manufacturers to use recycled content by making smart shopping decisions.
- See Reforming the Paper Industry - Smart Paper: A Guide for Businesses to rethink the way your company buys and uses paper
- Only buy wood products made from sustainably sourced wood. Be particularly careful with hardwood products which are more likely to come from rainforests.
- Burn only seasoned wood in your woodstove or fireplace... and don't light them as often.
- Don't buy souvenirs made from wild or endangered animals
 Structural solutions
- Sustainable development
- Sustainable agriculture
- Sustainable forestry
- Be an eco-tourist
- Amazon Destruction with updated statistics and causes
- Underlying causes for deforestation
- Rainforests and climate
- Rainforest Facts
- GPS mapping and Google Earth help Amazon Indians to merge traditional knowledge with western technology and the forest ecosystem to conserve biodiversity, health, and culture in South American rainforests.