Jewellery is a personal adornment which is typically made of valuable metals, gemstones and other materials like shells or beads. A personal ornament which is made of inexpensive materials is called Costume jewellery. Rings, necklaces, bracelets and earrings are the most recognized forms of jewellery. However, other forms of ornaments which are also considered as jewelleries are hairpins, brooches and anklets.
Hundreds of years ago, spelling variations of names were largely practiced before the English spelling was standardized. During the middle ages, the elements of French, Latin and other languages were altered and incorporated into English including name spellings for the purpose of making the terms more comprehensible in the English language. Examples of those spelling variations are Jewell, Jewall, Jule, Jouel and Joel. The French term “joule” and the Latin word “Jocale” which means plaything were anglicised to “jewel”.
The first signs of jewellery were used by the earliest Homo sapiens nearly 200,000 years ago. Their jewelleries were commonly made of bones, shells, horns, leaf fibers for strings and other materials available during those times. An incredible number of relics were found by great archaeologistswho proved the existence and use of jewellery during the primeval period.
One of the oldest man-made jewellery is the mollusk jewellery which was discovered in South Africa. This mollusk jewellery is made of pea-size, snail-like primeval shell beads pierced with holes.Jewelleries in Africa which originated way back 75,000- 100,000 years ago, during the Middle Stone Age were typically made of beads, shells, horns teeth and bones. Jewelleries during those times symbolized tribal, religious and cultural differences. One of the most ancient and priceless jewelleries emerged in the ancient civilization of Egypt, the land of Pharaohs. The value and use of jewellery dates back 3,000 to 5,000 years ago where precious jewelleries were normally created for the use and luxury of the wealthy Egyptians.
Even in those prehistoric times, gold is the most favoured metalin making jewelleries mainly because of its glorious shine that defeats the test of time. Archaeologists discovered hundreds of gold mines and found that Egyptians during those times reached the advance phase of mining. Wealthy Egyptians wear their lavish and fine jewelleries in their everyday life especially during ceremonies and their jewelleries are also buried with them upon death. Egyptians put supreme importance to objects which were significantly associated with their religious practice and this was largely reflected on jewellery. One of the most significant archaeological discoveries took place in 1922 by Howard Carter. King Tutankhamun’s tomb and a variety of jewelleries and other artefacts made of gold were found during one of his excavations.
Diamonds were first discovered and mined in India in 296 BC. Jewelleries made of diamonds were commonly used as amulets and as a part of any religious rites or celebrations.
 Use and Functions
Jewellery as a currency is used as a means of barter and as mediums of exchange. It is heavily reflected on trade good such as slave bead. One can also exhibit his or her wealth or status by acquiring and wearing significantly expensive jewelleries. Different cultures all over the world practice and continuously fancy the idea of keeping their wealth in the form of jewellery. An example of wealth storage is a marriage dowry composed of highly luxurious jewelleries given to a girl on the wedding.
Jewelleries are commonly used to symbolize the sanctity of marriage vows or the status of marriage in the form of wedding rings. Another example is the religious worship by Christians who uses crucifixes or other religious icons as pendants.
There are also jewelleries intended for functional use such as brooches, hairpins and buckles. These items have specific uses other than ornamentation.
Through the ages and some different cultures, amulets have been known for the use of protection against bad luck, sickness, evil and other bad spirits. Amulets, religious medallions and pendants are deemed the earliest forms of jewellery and are made of stone, teeth or other materials that are traditionally worn around the neck to protect the wearer or attract good fortune.
Jewelleries among others are commonly used for the purpose of beautifying a person’s appearance. In many ways and forms, people from all walks of life and from different locations use jewelleries for the pleasure of looking gloriously attractive. Art and creativity is also reflected in the form of jewellery. Jewelleries are widely accepted and showcased as an art. There are plenty of Museums who specializes in collecting vintage and contemporary art jewelleries.
 Jewellery Materials
Beads are commonly used materials in jewellery making. Through the ages, tribal women in Africa and India use beads to make jewelleries. There are types of beads which are largely used such as stone, wood, glass and plastic beads. These beads are artistically crafted to make necklaces, anklets, bracelets and even rings. The small sized beads are known as seed beads and they come in matte, lustre and glossy finish.Beads as we all know are inexpensive and widely available in the market.
The word diamond is derived from an ancient Greek word which means “unbreakable”. Diamonds are also the most favoured and expensive material for jewellery making.The oldest terrestrial diamonds ever found was discovered in Western Australia which is scientifically proven to be 4 billion years old. Diamond is known to be the hardest substance on earth having the perfect scale for hardness. It has other remarkable characteristics such as its brilliance and the flashing effect when exposed in light. Diamond is the most prized and sought after gemstone all over the world and it is famous in engagement rings. One of the world’s great and most desired diamonds is the 24.8 carat fancy intense pink diamond. This rare diamond was last seen being auctioned in the market around 60 years ago.
 Other Gemstones
One of the most appreciated jewellery materials are gemstones like Amber, Amethyst, Emerald, Jade, Jasper, Quartz, Ruby, Sapphire and Turquoise. Gemstones are classified as precious and semi-precious stones and are graded using the naked eye. These stones have very attractive colours which are perfect for jewellery making like birthstone rings.
Gold, silver and other metals are usually used in jewellery making. The oldest gold jewellery ever discovered is a 4,000 years old gold necklace found in Peru. Gold is an expensive material for jewelleries nevertheless one of the most preferred and valued jewellery possessions.
 Jewellery Crimes
There are over $100 million industry losses each year in the United States resulting from jewellery crimes. Travelling sales persons are the common target for jewellery theft. The vigilance of the authorities and the decrease in the number of salesperson has however contributed to decline in the jewellery crime rates. In 1994, the biggest jewellery robbery occurred in French Riviera. Two men fired a couple of huge machine guns, smashed the display cases and gathered all the jewelleries which cost $60 million. The criminals fled and were never found.
In 2002, the heist in Museon museum of Science in The Hague, Netherlands shocked the whole world. The robbery was well-planned and executed successfully as the estimated worth of the diamonds stolen is $12 million.
 Jewellery Market
The United States has the largest market share in the jewellery industry according to the recent study of Klynveld, Peat, Marwick and Goerdele (KPMG). However, the same study predicted that by 2015 the market share of the United States will decline while China and India will have a dramatic increase. The European Union is next to the United States in the market share for jewellery Industry. Africa, Russia , Canada and Australia are the major sources of raw materials in the jewellery industry. The leading jewellery manufacturers are Italy, India, China and Turkey.
The significant growth of customary jewellery demand and sales are strongly coming from Sweden, Austria, Greece, Ireland, Spain and Finland while Asian countries have a high demand for the production of symbolic jewellery. The researches which are made for jewellery report analysis involves the demand patterns, sales trends market or distribution strategies and challenges from competition. Reports show there was a 5.7 percent increased per year in the demand for costume jewelleryfrom 2003 to 2008. In 2007, the global sales for jewellery have increased enormously until 2008. However, the jewellery sales went down in 2009 due to the global economic crisis.
 Eco-friendly Jewelery
There are many eco-friendly jewelry designs from vintage, repurposed, recycled; why not go green baby and look good at the same time! We would end up filling many less landfills while styling a knockout piece of jewelry. Some are green and absolutely gorgeous while others fall somewhere far beneath the green but great mark. Make a statement that you are good to the planet as you accessorize. Here are 25 eco-friendly jewelry fashions in an irresistible blend of function and style, some recycled wonders and some will make you wonder what were they thinking.