Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion and burning of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. Incineration of both hazardous and harmless wastes may cause emissions of substances which pollute the air, water and soil and have harmful effects on human health.
Incinerators may reduce the volume of solid waste, but they do notdispose of the toxic substances contained in the waste. They create thelargest source of dioxins, which is one of the most toxic chemicalsknown to science.
Incinerators emit a wide range of pollutants in their stack gases,ashes and other residues. The filters used to clean incinerator stackgases produce solid and liquid toxic wastes, which also need to be disposed. The only way to improve the situation is to avoid toxic waste production by improving our products and processes.
All incineration or co-incineration plants must have a permit to carry out their activities. The permit will be issued by the competent authority on the condition that the requirements defined in this Directive are complied with. The permit specifies the categories and quantities of waste which may be treated, the plant's incineration or co-incineration capacity and the procedures for sampling and measuring air and water pollutants to be used.